November 4, 2016

Tweet by Peter Gorman on Twitter

Peter Gorman (@Rule13_1)
Great time of year to show the impact of shadows. What's holding your greens back? pic.twitter.com/xAXONG4Lon

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Peter Gorman
Golf Course Superintendent 
Pine Orchard Yacht and Country Club
2 Club Parkway
Branford, CT 06405
203-483-9948

September 14, 2016

Great article from the USGA about drainage

It's hard to think about drainage after a summer like this, but now is the best time to start working on a plan. Drainage is never an issue until you need it, and it doesn't work.
Some of the problems we experienced toward the end of the summer are directly related to drainage, more specifically the lack of it. The 3rd, 4th,5th, and 6th fairways along with the 5th green all suffered turf loss after a thunderstorm dumped water onto stressed turf, and the temperatures soared into the 90's before the playing surfaces had a chance to drain. The high temperatures literally cooked (Scott might say simmered) the turf, damaging the proteins almost like an egg white dropped into boiling water.
Wet soils and turf absorb and retain heat more readily than when they are dry. Adding drainage to the areas of the course with heavy soils and minimal surface drainage will significantly improve the appearance, function, and health of the turf.
Follow the link to an article that will share more than you can imagine about the importance of drainage on golf courses.

http://gsrpdf.lib.msu.edu/ticpdf.py?file=/article/skorulski-o'brien-drainage-9-2-16.pdf

September 9, 2016

Peter Gorman shared a link: Take the Course Care Aeration Quiz

Take the Course Care Aeration Quiz from Ridgewood CC Grounds's Tweet

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Peter Gorman
Golf Course Superintendent 
Pine Orchard Yacht and Country Club
2 Club Parkway
Branford, CT 06405
203-483-9948

Tweet by Ed Vallee on Twitter

Ed Vallee (@EdValleeWx)
It was the hottest August on record in PA, NY, MD, DE, NJ, CT, MA, and RI; the hottest August out of 122yr database. pic.twitter.com/AHNXyqCcdm


Peter Gorman
Golf Course Superintendent 
Pine Orchard Yacht and Country Club
2 Club Parkway
Branford, CT 06405
203-483-9948

September 2, 2016

High tide on 18

Many people wonder why there are bare spots on the 18th fairway around the drains.
Here are two photos that show how close the tidal waters come to the surface of the fairways.
The water is still rising in the creek, and is only 2" below the surface at the lowest portion of the fairway. The roots of the grass are definitely in the brackish water, and we are working to promote salt tolerant grasses to the best of our ability.
We have made progress over the last few years with alkali grass, and will continue to top dress and seed the area this fall to further reduce the damaged turf.

August 18, 2016

5th Fairway Recovering from Disease Outbreak

The fifth fairway has been roped off to help speed the recovery to the turf damaged during the recent stretch of extreme heat and humidity.  Please keep all carts out of these areas until the area has recovered enough to tolerate increased traffic.  The area is open for play and walkers may bring push carts through the openings.

The damage to the fairway was caused by a fungus called gray leaf spot.  This fungus typically arrives in mid to late August, and is carried from the mid-Atlantic by large weather systems.  This summer the disease appears to have spread from the Midwest, arriving a few weeks ahead of schedule. 

Gray Leaf Spot is a fungus that only attacks perennial ryegrass, is found in areas prone to high traffic or compaction, and thrives in high heat and humidity.  Damage is more severe when nitrogen is readily available and turf remains wet for extended periods of time.  During the week before the Men's Invitational we spent extra time watering areas that were struggling with heat and drought stress, and applied fertilizer to all areas the course to produce a uniform green color.  These applications were made at the onset of infection, when the symptoms resemble heat or drought stress.

Our course was the first confirmed case of Gray Leaf Spot in Connecticut, and we initiated our control and recovery efforts as the disease samples were being dropped off at the pathology lab at UCONN for diagnosis.  We applied a combination of fungicides to stop the progression of the disease, and initiated cultural practices to correct the conditions that contribute to the problem as well.  We have seeded the area twice with the latest varieties of disease resistant creeping bentgrass, and will continue to do so until the recovery is complete.

The remaining fairways that are predominantly perennial ryegrass (3,7,8,9) have been sprayed with fungicides to prevent the spread of the disease, and we will resume our fertilizer applications once the heat and humidity have passed and cooler nights have returned.  The worst of the situation is behind us, and I am already seeing signs of improvement.  Soon we will be wearing long sleeves in the morning, which will indicate that conditions are in our favor for the course to recover from all the heat, humidity, and other summer stress factors.  As we transition the turf from weaker grass species to more durable alternatives, conditions will improve and the area will be more durable, and damage from stressful conditions and the wear and tear of summer play will be less noticeable.   We have seen this progression on the fourth approach that suffered from the same disease a few years ago and on the greens that have been transitioning from weaker annual bluegrass to resilient creeping bentgrass in recent years.

I apologize for the inconvenience and appreciate your support.  It has been one of the longest summers I can remember in the 20+ years that I have been working on golf courses, and I am looking forward to fall weather and the best playing conditions of the year.

August 13, 2016

Shade research shows the importance of morning sun

Mike Richardson (@ArkansasTurf)
Effects of shade on bentgrass are significant. Results are promising... @Trane_92 @uarkturf pic.twitter.com/S5RdG8yGFw

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Peter Gorman
Golf Course Superintendent 
Pine Orchard Yacht and Country Club
2 Club Parkway
Branford, CT 06405
203-483-9948

August 5, 2016

Peter Gorman shared a link: Five Things To Know About Water Management On Greens During Summer

An article from the USGA about effective irrigation practices.  



Peter Gorman
Golf Course Superintendent 
Pine Orchard Yacht and Country Club
2 Club Parkway
Branford, CT 06405
203-483-9948

The Marathon Continues

An update regarding the stress of pushing for playing conditions during periods of extreme weather (ex. Scheduling two premier multi-day tournaments two weeks apart in July/August).
Our fifth hole is a prime example of the poor growing environment they refer to, and as of today is really showing signs of stress. It will take weeks for the fairway and green to recover from the heat, drought, and intense maintenance.

http://www.usga.org/course-care/regional-updates/northeast-region/the-marathon-continues.html


Peter Gorman
Golf Course Superintendent
Pine Orchard Yacht and Country Club
2 Club Parkway
Branford, CT 06405
203-483-9948

Poor growing environments promote disease.

Below is a photo of a turf disease called Pythium blight.  It grows in hot humid weather, like we have been experiencing the last few days.  It has the potential to cause significant damage if left untreated. 
This photo was taken along a tree line on the eastern side of the 5th hole.  The soil is compacted, and this area remains in the shade until late morning, extending the length of time that moisture remains on the plants.  
The combination of compacted soil, extended shade, and reduced sunlight is also found on prime playing areas that are covered by cultural and chemical programs that protect the turf from this disease.  The poor growing environments decrease the efficacy of these programs, and often require additional labor, fertilizer, and chemical inputs to maintain playing conditions consistent with the rest of the course.  
Removing trees maximizes sun exposure, improves air circulation, and eliminated root competition on prime playing areas.  This improves the plants ability to perform its basic functions, and makes all our management programs more effective. 

August 1, 2016

Tweet by Michael Benkusky on Twitter

Michael Benkusky (@BenkuskyGolf)
Photo from PGA. To golfers who want their course in Major condition every day. This is how much staff it takes. pic.twitter.com/lsjdspp3l8

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Peter Gorman
Golf Course Superintendent 
Pine Orchard Yacht and Country Club
2 Club Parkway
Branford, CT 06405
203-483-9948

July 31, 2016

A fun, and very well done video about course etiquette.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i4J9gBHH8us&sns=em


Peter Gorman
Golf Course Superintendent
Pine Orchard Yacht and Country Club
2 Club Parkway
Branford, CT 06405
203-483-9948

July 25, 2016

Water use: Home lawns vs. Golf Courses

A number of people stopped me this weekend asking about their irrigation strategy for their lawn.  Most centered around the concept of watering during the day, as they watched us scramble through the Member/Member tournament trying to alleviate drought and heat stress on the turf.  
Before you follow the link to an excellent article on residential irrigation, I want to explain what we were doing, and how it differs from from what most people are doing at home.  The water we apply during the day is meant to cool the turf, not add moisture to the soil.  Cooling occurs as the water evaporates, which is how our body cools itself through perspiration. If we perspire at an excessive rate we experience dehydration, and in extreme cases heat stroke. During the initial stages of drought stress turf experiences wilt, and extreme drought stress leads to significant damage to leaves and other vital tissues.   We apply very light doses of water to help the plants regulate internal temperature, especially in July and August when root systems may be compromised as a result of excessive maintenance (double cutting, rolling, etc.).
Many people strive to have a front lawn that looks like turf found on golf courses. I would like to point out a few key differences in the use and management of these turf systems. First, most of the turf on golf courses is cut very short and very often, requiring a very high level of maintenance including additional irrigation and fertilizer applications.  Home lawns typically require less maintenance, and therefore excessive fertilizer and irrigation should be avoided.  
The link below will bring you to an excellent article about the right and wrong way to manage water on lawns. As with fertilizer and control products, more water does not necessarily mean better turf. When it comes to irrigation, deeper and less frequent is often the best strategy.  




Peter Gorman
Golf Course Superintendent 
Pine Orchard Yacht and Country Club
2 Club Parkway
Branford, CT 06405
203-483-9948

July 6, 2016

Tweet by Jared Keller on Twitter

Jared Keller (@MgcTurf)
Tree roots pruned during mainline irrig. Install. Turf will NEVER win the battle for H2O when up against trees. pic.twitter.com/bzOu5DTYCl

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Peter Gorman
Golf Course Superintendent 
Pine Orchard Yacht and Country Club
2 Club Parkway
Branford, CT 06405
203-483-9948

July 5, 2016

Caring for Your Course

Every golfer has a responsibility make every effort to leave the course as they found it as a courtesy to others.  As we head into the dog days of summer, I thought I would provide a few reminders about what golfers can do to help keep the golf course in great shape.  As the volume of play increases, the two key issues are divots on tees and fairways, and ball marks on greens. 
Divots
Golfers that are fortunate enough to play year round are often confused by different instructions that they receive from the northern and southern courses with respect to divot repair, specifically should they be replaced or filled with a sand/seed mix.  In general, it is always better to replace a thick divot the contains enough soil and roots for the turf to recover.  During July and August few divots will be hardy enough to hold up during the heat, therefore I recommend all scrapes be filled with sand. 
We provide bottles filled with sand and seed throughout the course in the event you run out of mix (thank you for being so diligent).  When filling divots, it is important to fill the scrape to the surface but no higher as the sand will dull the mowers.  I recommend stepping on the sand to compress the mix, and swipe your foot over it to smooth it out.  In time the scrape will recover either by the seed mix germinating, or the surrounding turf creeping in from the sides.  Here is a video from the USGA that provides more information about the best way to deal with divots.
The seed mix in the bottles is replaced at least twice each week.  Now that we are experiencing more play we will be adding more bottles on the course, and providing extra replacements for the pro shop staff.  Any bottles that are partially filled or contain wet sand are emptied and the mix is used by the staff to fill divots and thin areas throughout the course at the beginning of every week.  If you ever find an empty bottle on a cart, please ask the pro shop staff for a full one or grab one on the 1st tee. 
Ball Marks
The extremely dry conditions we have been experiencing lately have required us to irrigate the course more often than normal resulting in increased moisture in the playing surfaces.  While I typically try to keep the surfaces as firm as possible, it has been very difficult over the last few weeks to do so.  The good news is that the greens are much more receptive to approach shots.  The bad news is that there are a lot more ball marks to repair.  The general rule is that you should repair your own pitch mark plus on other. 
The best way to repair a ball mark is to push the turf from the back of the mark toward the center, and avoid the temptation to lift the center of the mark toward the surface.  Here is a link to a great video from the USGA on how to properly repair a ball mark.
That !)@#* Fescue!!!
Surprisingly we have received more positive comments about the fescue than negative this season.  Unfortunately, these areas pose a few more challenges in addition to the obvious task of advancing your ball.  It is extremely important that golf carts remain out of the fescue at all times.  The seed heads that make these areas so attractive are delicate, and once run over by tires will not return to their original height leaving the path visible for the rest of the season.  Less obvious is the wear that will occur if everyone drives in the narrow strip of rough between the fescue and the fairway.  On holes where the fescue is located close to the fairway (3, 7, 8, 9), we ask that you keep your carts in the fairway.  The fairways are covered by irrigation and receive a higher level of maintenance making it easier to manage the traffic than if it is concentrated in the rough.

The Green Staff takes great pride in their work and in the condition of the golf course.  We appreciate all the encouragement and support that many of you offer throughout the season, and we especially appreciate those who show how much they enjoy their time here by taking a few minutes each round to care for the course.  

June 27, 2016

Greens Maintenance To Be Completed Today

We will be completing extensive maintenance on the greens and fairways today. 
Greens will be verticut 2x, mowed, top dressed, rolled and sprayed with a wetting agent. 
Fairways will be spiked and verticut. 
These practices will have us extremely busy all day, and there will be various levels of disruption to the playing surfaces throughout the day. 
All of these practices are designed to produce the playing conditions we have been enjoying so far this season. It will also help us take full advantage of any natural precipitation that may come over the next couple of days.
We apologize for this inconvenience, and appreciate your support as we strive to provide the best golf experience for our members and their guests.   

June 26, 2016

Another commentary on US Open playing conditions.



Peter Gorman
Golf Course Superintendent 
Pine Orchard Yacht and Country Club
2 Club Parkway
Branford, CT 06405
203-483-9948

June 15, 2016

Tweet by Tweeter Alliss on Twitter

Tweeter Alliss (@TweeterAlliss)
Breaking; Mike Davis reacts to players practise rounds posted on Social Media at the #USOpen Splendid.
amp.twimg.com/v/a5dbf75f-e34…

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Peter Gorman
Golf Course Superintendent 
Pine Orchard Yacht and Country Club
2 Club Parkway
Branford, CT 06405
203-483-9948

June 5, 2016

Tweet by Joe Sponcia on Twitter

Joe Sponcia (@jtsponcia)
Ron Whitten, from this months golf digest on Oakmont pic.twitter.com/Pt6pfbm4aY

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Peter Gorman
Golf Course Superintendent 
Pine Orchard Yacht and Country Club
2 Club Parkway
Branford, CT 06405
203-483-9948

May 26, 2016

Crossing New Fescue Areas

In response to comments received from a number of golfers last season regarding the lack of penalty in the rough, we have expanded some of the fescue areas on the 3rd, 7th, and 8th holes.  Our intention was to add challenge and penalty for lower handicap golfers and longer hitters without impacting the higher handicap and novice golfers.
These areas have been managed to eliminate all but the fine fescue grasses, and we expect the areas to thin out as the warm weather returns.  For the fescue to remain playable and attractive, it is important to eliminate all cart traffic from these areas.  Carts will bend and break the seed heads making it much more difficult to get a golf club to the ball and through the grass making the penalty for an errant shot more severe than intended.
We have added short cuts through the fescue that will allow carts to return to their hole without impacting the areas.  We expect these areas to add character and interest to the holes, and with your cooperation they will provide an attractive visual appeal as well.  The photo below shows the fescue areas and the short cuts in red.

Click on image to enlarge

May 7, 2016

Fore the Golfer: Facts About Fertilization

This article from the USGA provides information about fertilizer use on golf courses.
I typically am very conservative with fertilizer, but the membership survey revealed a desire for thicker rough and greener turf throughout the golf course. In response to these comments, we have increased the amount of fertilizer that will be applied to fairways and rough. The fairway fertilizer will be applied on May 9th, while the rough application will be delayed to avoid excessive growth that would significantly impact playability and pace of play.
We remain committed to environmental stewardship, and will continue to use fertilizer and control products in a safe, responsible manner.

http://www.usga.org/course-care/forethegolfer/fertilize--fore--playability.html

April 12, 2016

Online auction to fund turf research

The New England Regional Turf Foundation is hosting an auction for rounds of golf to help fund turf research at universities in the Northeast. The research projects help improve the playing conditions you enjoy wherever you play golf. The projects funded also help develop a more sustainable model for golf maintenance based on reduced reliance on fertilizer, pesticides and irrigation. 
Please take a moment to peruse the list of clubs available, and consider supporting the NERTF Tee Up New England campaign. 

Peter Gorman
Golf Course Superintendent
Pine Orchard Yacht and Country Club

April 7, 2016

Greens aeration

We will be aerating the greens on Friday April 8th.  While most golfers have come to accept this process as a necessary evil, few truly understand why we do it, why different courses do it different ways and at different times.  Aeration programs are designed and scheduled to accomplish specific goals, and therefore no two courses complete the process the same way or at the same time.  Here are a few common questions and answers that will help you understand the aeration program at Pine Orchard.

Why do we have to do it?
Our primary goal is to create vertical channels of sand in the turf that allow water to infiltrate the surface, and will facilitate movement of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the soil and atmosphere.  The exchange of gases will help develop healthier, more resilient plants that tolerate the stress we impose throughout the summer.  The sand channels we create will function throughout the season, and we will supplement this aeration with less invasive "venting" every three weeks to keep the surfaces open throughout the season.

Why do we have to do it now?
Every course chooses their aeration timing based on their own set of priorities.  Some wait until late spring to minimize the recovery time, others wait until late fall to maximize revenue from green fees, carts, and outings.  I like to get the process out of the way at the beginning of the season while most golfers are just happy to get back outside, and are trying to find their swing.  At this time the greens are still a little slow and bumpy as the turf resumes growth, and many golfers have yet to return from their winter homes.  By the time the greens heal, many golfers have found their swing, and are ready to fine tune their short game for the season.  The real benefit of this early timing is that we will not have to endure another significant disruption to the greens until the end of the season which allows us to maximize the number of weeks that the greens are in top condition.

Why don't we pull cores anymore?
Core aeration is one of the most effective methods of controlling organic matter in turf.  Thankfully, our soil tests show that the organic matter in our greens falls within an acceptable range, and we are able to manage its development with less invasive practices such as topdressing and vertical mowing.  Core areation can lead to contamination of the turf by bringing native soil and weed seeds to the surface.  By using solid tines, the sand topdressing is not contaminated and we are able to promote more resilient perennial turf species.

What is the process?
We begin by applying straight sand topdressing to the greens, and once it dries we punch 1/2" holes into the turf.  The dry sand falls directly to the bottom of the hole, and the vibration helps sand permeate the turf canopy.  We then drag the sand into the holes using a brush to fill the holes.  Verticutting helps fill the holes and works any excess sand into the turf, which will produce the smooth firm surfaces expected at Pine Orchard.

How long until they heal?
The recovery process is driven by soil temperatures which are driven by the amount of sun and overnight lows.  Recovery typically takes about a week longer in early spring than when completed later in the season. Our goal is to have the greens smooth by the lat weekend in April and fast by the first week in May.  We will continue to monitor the recovery and will adjust any programs needed to achieve the goals of our program, and set the stage for another season of great golf at Pine Orchard.

What then?
Once the greens aeration is complete, we will shift our focus to tees, fairways, approaches, and rough. These areas will be addressed as weather and maintenance schedules allow.  There is much less disruption associated with aerating the rest of the course, and we hope to have the entire course complete by the time the greens have healed.  The course is closed on Mondays until 1:00 throughout the season which allows us to complete less invasive cultural practices every two or three weeks.  This schedule will ensure that the turf throughout the course can tolerate heat, drought, and traffic stress that is common during the summer months.

March 28, 2016

Looking Forward to 2016

Another golf season is upon us.  Thanks to extended warm weather last fall and a mild winter, we have been able to get a lot of work done on the golf course.  The turf that suffered damage from the extended drought last summer have been aerified, seeded, and fertilized, and most areas have recovered completely. 
Since your last round of golf there has been a lot of work done to improve the appearance and playability of the golf course. Our first project involved adding a bunker to the 9th hole to restore the challenge lost when the trees along the left side died.  The bunker was designed by Tim Gerrish and installed by our own staff, allowing us to complete the project on time and under budget.  The plan is to install the sand in early April.  I hope you enjoy this new feature as you drive by, and don’t have too many opportunities to play from it.   
Another significant change is the addition of a new cart path to the 17th tee.  The crushed granite path will help improve the appearance and function of the area.  This project includes renovating the old teaching tee into a fescue mound, and small ornamental plantings that will complement the wetland meadow and attract pollinators.  We also extended the path at the 7th/16th tees to provide better access to the forward tee and the help manage traffic and compaction.
The wet meadow is progressing nicely.  The area was planted last fall using two custom native seed mixes that will mirror the grasses found along the tidal creek on the first hole.  While these grasses mature over the coming year, we will be examining the possibility of adding more color and interest to these areas, including the pink Rose Mallow flowers that bloom toward the end of the summer. 
We removed a number of trees and undergrowth from the wood lines throughout the course, especially on holes 4, 5, and 6.  The long term plan is to highlight the natural beauty of the landscape by establishing low maintenance grasses and adding seasonal color interest in the form of native azaleas and mountain laurels.  The first phase of the ornamental planting has been initiated at the comfort station, and will be completed this spring. 
Looking ahead, we have modified a number of maintenance programs based on conditions observed during the drought of 2015.  We have added late spring fertilizer applications to the fairways and primary rough that will promote more resilient turf through the heat of the summer.  We have also upgraded the irrigation system to allow wetting agents to be applied through the sprinklers rather than sprayed onto the turf.  This will improve our irrigation applications to greens, tees, and fairways, and will extend the area covered to include the rough areas covered by the irrigation system. The result of these programs will be a healthier, more consistent appearance throughout the golf course. 

In the coming weeks we will resume our routine maintenance practices, and will complete our spring aeration and topdressing programs to greens, tees, and fairways.  Any practices that will significantly impact the condition or access of the golf course will be posted on ForeTees, posted on this blog and on Twitter @pineorchard.  Hopefully the weather will continue to improve, and we will see more people out enjoying a few early rounds of golf as the course continues to transition from winter to spring.   

March 5, 2016

Shared from Twitter: Coore, Crenshaw & Pinehurst

A great article about the shift toward sustainable golf. We still have a lot of work to do, but #2 can help get us started. 
Coore, Crenshaw & Pinehurst from USGA's Tweet

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Sent from my iPhone

March 1, 2016

New cart paths being finished today


The Stony Creek crushed granite that we used for the cart path at the 16th tee last summer has been installed on the new cart paths at the 16th and 17th tees, and resurfaced the path at the 5th/14th tees.  

February 26, 2016

A Fresh Start

Although the calendar says it is still winter, there is a strong feeling that spring is right around the corner.  With Opening Day for the clubhouse just a week away, I thought I would share a few thoughts about what you can expect to see when you return to the golf course in a few weeks.

The most significant change will be the addition of a new fairway bunker on the 9th/18th hole.  This feature was added to strengthen the left side of the hole after a number of pine trees were lost over the last few years.  The bunker was conceived and designed by Tim Gerrish and was constructed by our own maintenance staff.  Due to the location of the bunker, I do not expect it to affect the majority of golfers off the tee.  The unfortunate individuals that do find the bunker will have a difficult time seeing the green from the sand, and will certainly avoid this area in future rounds.

After reviewing the responses from the membership survey, the new Green Committee has made course beautification a priority for 2016 and beyond.  you will find a few projects that we initiated this winter that will help address this concern including new crushed granite cart paths on the 16th forward tee, the 17th back tees, and the 5th/14th tees.  These projects will not only improve the function and appearance of these areas, they will also serve as a test case for the paths that will be added during the Fairway Renovation Project.  We will soon be completing an ornamental planting at the 6th tee/Comfort station area.  This fall we removed some weeds and undergrowth and installed native azaleas, and will be adding Mountain Laurels next month.  In time, the goal is to eventually repeat this theme along the ridge from the 6th tee all the way to the 13th green.  This will highlight the attractive rock outcrops and rugged terrain that is characteristic of the Connecticut coastline.

Thanks to the warm weather we enjoyed last fall, the wetland meadow seed that was planted in September and October germinated and established remarkably well.  There will certainly be more work to do, but these areas will be much more attractive in 2016.  While the area will require more attention over the coming years, the project to date is on schedule and well under the original anticipated budget.

The Fairway Renovation and Water Diversion Project approved by the membership in 2012 has resumed, and the permit applications are being finalized.  The goal is to have all applications submitted and approved by the end of 2016.  This will allow the club to move forward once the finance committee and Board of Governors determine the club is a position to initiate construction.

There have been a number of changes that have been going on behind the scenes as well, and we are very optimistic looking ahead to the coming golf season.  We hope you all wintered well and were able sneak in a few rounds of golf, and look forward to seeing you all on the golf course this spring.

February 19, 2016

A Picture Is Worth A Thousand Words

Here is a timely regional update from the USGA regarding the impact of shade on putting green turf.
The Golf Long Range and Green Committees are currently looking at some key tree removals that will significantly improve the growing environments around the golf course.
Although we may not be able to complete all of the proposed work in 2016, the recommendations are part of a comprehensive Tree Management Program that prioritizes and plans all pruning, removal, or planting of trees on the course.

http://www.usga.org/content/usga/home-page/course-care/regional-updates/northeast-region/a-picture-is-worth-a-thousand-words.html


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